Speech audiometry is an essential part of the battery of comprehensive audiometric tests, which evaluates speech reception, recognition and understanding.
No child is too young for a hearing test! Infants are now routinely screened for potential hearing loss before they leave the hospital. The type of test used to assess a child's hearing status depends on the age and cognitive function of the child. Infants are tested in two ways: behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically.
Behavioral observation assessment (BOA) testing is conducted by an audiologist specially trained to detect bodily reactions to sound i.e. cessation of activity, body movement, eye widening, eye opening, or change in sucking rate.
The Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR)
As children mature, so does their ability to respond to sound. At approximately six to seven months of age, normally-developing children are able to turn toward a sound source. Children at this level are tested either using earphones or in the sound booth without earphones but using speakers. Sounds used for testing typically include low pitch to high pitch tones that are included in the speech range. Turning toward the sound source is reinforced with a lighted toy. This type of testing is called visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) and is generally quite accurate in determining hearing levels.
By approximately 2 1/2 - 3 years of age most children can be tested using a technique called conditioned play audiometry. Earphones are placed on the child and she/he is conditioned to play various games when the test tone is heard.
Traditional or standard audiometry is used with older children and adults. This method requires the patient to press a response button or raise a hand when the test test tone is heard.
A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. A cochlear implants an electrical device which proposes to remedy the incapacity of functioning by being in place of the damaged hair cells and providing the necessary electrical stimulation. The implant mimics patterns of nerve activity present in the normal human ear and allows for the "spontaneous recognition of all types of sound" and eventual acquisition determination to use cochlear implants in prelingually & post lingually deaf children. Cochlear implant is a prosthetic management for hearing.
Who can get a cochlear implant?
• Having severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment in both ears.
• Living in or desiring to live in the "hearing world"
• Not benefiting enough from other kinds of hearing aids
• In order to determine if a patient is a candidate for a cochlear implant, the patient must have a medical evaluation by an ear, nose, and throat doctor (otolaryngologist/ENT). This evaluation may include a CT scan or MRI scan of the brain and the middle and inner ear.
Optimum age for an implant?
Congenitally deaf children who receive cochlear implants at a young age (less than 2 years) have better success with them than congenitally deaf children who first receive the implants at a later age, though the critical period for utilizing auditory information does not close completely until adolescence.
What are the benefits of a cochlear implant?
• Many parents of children with cochlear implants report that their child.
• Speaks at normal hearing level.
• Has greater confidence in social situations
• Hears clearly in noisy environments.
• Enjoys a world of new sounds.
• Talk on the phone & Enjoy music.
Benefits of binaural implant
Hearing with two ears is called binaural hearing, has distinct advantages such as improved speech understanding in noise, better speech recognition and sound localization. In general, it can be said that "stereo" hearing (with two ears) is less strenuous than "mono" hearing (with one ear). The distinct advantages of bilateral implantation have also been well documented in adults. Several studies have reported restored ability to localise sounds and that adult bilateral users have demonstrated all of the binaural effects that normal individuals enjoy. Furthermore, the age of implantation in adults appears to have no bearing on the performance of the cochlear implant meaning that older adults can also obtain the same benefits as younger implanted adults.
Auditory Verbal Training (AVT) or Post-op rehabilitation-
Rehabilitation is an essential part for those who have undergone Cochlear Implantation. All patients need Auditory Verbal Therapy (AVT). In Auditory Verbal Therapy, the emphasis is laid on making the child listen and speak normally, rather than on lip reading and visual cues. Learning to listen takes time and requires concerted efforts from the patient, the family and the person providing habilitation services. Thus the implant can offer a wide range of benefits, including hearing speech, environmental sounds and music.
It is a scientific procedure by which a hearing aid is selected for a hearing impaired person, using an eclectic method comprising of both subjective and objective procedures.
Completely in the canal (CIC)
These are molded to fit inside your ear canal and can improve mild to moderate hearing loss in adults.
A CIC hearing aid:
• Is the least noticeable in the ear
• Is less likely to pick up wind noise because the ear protects the instrument
• Is easy to use with the telephone
In the canal (ITC)
These are custom molded and fit partly in the ear canal, but not as deeply as the CIC. This hearing aid can improve mild to moderate hearing loss in adults.
A ITC hearing aid:
• Is less visible in the ear
• Is easy to use with the telephone
Behind the ear (BTE)
BTE hearing aids hook over the top of your ear and rest behind the ear. The hearing aid picks up sound, amplifies it and carries the amplified sound to an ear mold that fits inside your ear canal. This type of aid is appropriate for almost all types of hearing loss and for people of all ages.
A BTE hearing aid:
• Is the largest, most visible type of hearing aid, though some new versions are smaller, streamlined and barely visible
• Is capable of more amplification than are other hearing aid styles
These are very small BTE-style devices. Sound travels from the instrument through a small tube or wire to a tiny dome or speaker in the ear canal. These aids leave the ear canal open, so they are best for mild to moderate high-frequency losses where low-frequency hearing is still normal or near normal.
A open-fit hearing aid:
• Is less visible
• Doesn't plug the ear like the small in-the-canal hearing aids do
• Uses very small batteries
• Lacks manual adjustments due to the small size
If you have hearing loss in both ears (bilateral hearing loss), then you are most likely a candidate for two hearing aids.
Why two hearing aids are better than one?
• Better understanding of speech.
• Better understanding in group and noisy situations.
• Speech intelligibility is improved in difficult listening situations when wearing two hearing aids.
• Better ability to tell the direction of sound. In a social gathering, for example, localization allows you to hear from which direction someone is speaking to you. Simply put, with binaural hearing, you will better detect where sounds are coming from in every situation.
• Better sound quality, you increase your hearing range from 180 degrees reception with just one instrument, to 360 degrees. This greater • range provides a better sense of balance and sound quality.
• Wider hearing range. A person can hear sounds from a further distance with two ears, rather than just one. A voice that's barely heard at 10 feet with one ear can be heard up to 40 feet with two ears.
• Better sound identification. Often, with just one hearing aid, many noises and words sound alike. But with two hearing aids, as with two ears, sounds are more easily distinguishable.
• Keep both ears active resulting in potentially less hearing loss deterioration. When only one hearing aid is worn, the unaided ear tends to lose its ability to hear and understand. This is clinically called the auditory deprivation effect. Wearing two hearing aids keeps both ears active.
• Hearing is less tiring and listening more pleasant.
• Greater comfort when loud noises occur.
• Reduced feedback and whistling.
Logically, just as you use both eyes to see clearly, you need two healthy ears to hear clearly. Before you decide on one hearing aid, try two.
Speech Therapy is the treatment of speech and communication disorders. The approach used depends on the disorder. It may include physical exercises to strengthen the muscles used in speech (oral-motor work), speech drills to improve clarity or sound production practice to improve articulation.
As the name suggests, speech therapy deals with speech problems that an individual may encounter. However, the field of Speech Pathology doesn't only tackle speech, but also language and other communication problems that people may already have due to birth, or they acquired due to accidents or other misfortunes.
Speech therapy is basically a treatment that people of all ages can undergo, to fix their speech. Although speech therapy alone would focus on fixing speech related problems like treating one's vocal pitch, volume, tone, rhythm and
Goals of Speech Therapy
Speech Therapy aims for an individual to develop or get back effective communication skills at its optimal level. Recovery mainly depends on the case and severity of your problem, especially if your speech problem is acquired, meaning you had normal speech skills before you had an accident or faced an abrupt incident that caused your current speech problem; thus, you may or may not get back your old level of speech function.
Who Gives Speech Therapy?
A highly trained professional, called a SLP or a Speech and Language Pathologist, gives Speech Therapy. Speech and Language Pathologists A highly trained professional, called an SLP or a Speech and Language Pathologist, gives Speech Therapy. Speech and Language Pathologists are informally more popularly known as Speech Therapists. They are professionals who have education and training with human communication development and disorders.
Speech and Language pathologists assess diagnose and treat people with speech, communication and language disorders. However, they are not doctors, but are considered to be specialists in the field of medical rehabilitation.
Speech Disorders and Language Disorders:
|Children With||Adults With|
|Learning difficulty||Learning difficulty|
|Physical disability||Physical disability|
|Language delay||Language delay|
|Difficulties in sound production||Difficulties in sound production|
|Hearing problems||Hearing problems|
|Cleft palate||Cleft palate|
|Autistic spectrum disorders||Autistic spectrum disorders|
|Voice disorders||Voice disorders|
|Selective mutism||Selective mutism|